# Application Gallery

The Application Gallery features COMSOL Multiphysics® tutorial and demo app files pertinent to the electrical, structural, acoustics, fluid, heat, and chemical disciplines. You can use these examples as a starting point for your own simulation work by downloading the tutorial model or demo app file and its accompanying instructions.

Search for tutorials and apps relevant to your area of expertise via the Quick Search feature. To download the MPH-files, log in or create a COMSOL Access account that is associated with a valid COMSOL license. Note that many of the examples featured here can also be accessed via the Application Libraries that are built into the COMSOL Multiphysics® software and available from the File menu.

### 1D Isothermal Lithium-Air Battery

Rechargeable lithium-air batteries have recently attracted great interest mainly due to their high energy density. The theoretical value is about 11400 Wh/kg which is around 10 times greater than the lithium-ion batteries. In this tutorial, discharge of a lithium-air battery is simulated using the *Lithium-ion Battery* interface. The transport of oxygen (from external air) in the porous carbon ...

### Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy in a Fuel Cell

A fuel cell unit cell is modeled using the full Butler-Volmer expression for the anodic and cathodic charge transfer reactions. The anodic and cathodic overpotentials depend on the local ionic and electronic potentials, which are obtained from the charge balance equations for ionic and electronic current. A small sinusoidal perturbation of the potential around a given cell voltage is applied and ...

### Primary Current Distribution in a Lead-Acid Battery Grid Electrode

This 3D model example demonstrates the use of the Primary Current Distribution interface for modeling current distributions in electrochemical cells. In primary current distribution, the potential losses due to electrode kinetics and mass transport are assumed to be negligible, and ohmic losses are govern the current distribution in the cell. Here you investigate primary current distribution in ...

### Soluble Lead-Acid Redox Flow Battery

In a redox flow battery electrochemical energy is stored as redox couples in the electrolyte, which is stored in tanks outside the electrochemical cell. During operation, electrolyte is pumped through the cell and, due to the electrochemical reactions, the individual concentrations of the active species in the electrolyte are changed. The state of charge of the flow battery is determined by ...

### Discharge and Self-Discharge of a Lead-Acid Battery

Lead-acid batteries are widely used as starting batteries for various traction applications such as cars and trucks and so forth. The reason for this is the fairly low cost in combination with the performance robustness for a broad range of operating conditions. However, one drawback of this battery type is that the inherent thermodynamics of the battery chemistry causes the battery to self ...

### 1D Isothermal Zinc-Silver Oxide Battery

Zinc-Silver oxide (Zn-AgO) batteries are used in different industries due to their high capacity per unit weight. In this work, discharge of a Zn-AgO battery is simulated using the *Battery with Binary Electrolyte* interface. The electrochemical reactions in the positive and negative electrodes lead to changes in porosity and species concentration in the electrodes. This is modeled using *Domain ...

### 1D Isothermal Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery

This model simulates the discharge of a Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) battery using the Battery with Binary Electrolyte interface. The geometry is in one dimension and the model is isothermal. The model serves as an introduction to NiMH modeling, and can be further extended to include various side reactions.

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