# Application Gallery

The Application Gallery features COMSOL Multiphysics® tutorial and demo app files pertinent to the electrical, structural, acoustics, fluid, heat, and chemical disciplines. You can use these examples as a starting point for your own simulation work by downloading the tutorial model or demo app file and its accompanying instructions.

Search for tutorials and apps relevant to your area of expertise via the Quick Search feature. To download the MPH-files, log in or create a COMSOL Access account that is associated with a valid COMSOL license. Note that many of the examples featured here can also be accessed via the Application Libraries that are built into the COMSOL Multiphysics® software and available from the File menu.

### Thermophoresis

When a temperature gradient in a gas exists, suspended particles will tend to move from regions of high temperature to low. The force which produces this effect is called the thermophoretic force. Gas molecules colliding with a particle from the hot side have a higher velocity than the cold side, which results in a net force towards cold areas. This effect can be exploited to create thermal ...

### Ion Cyclotron Motion

This model computes the trajectory of an ion in a uniform magnetic field using the Newtonian, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations available in the Mathematical Particle Tracing interface.

### Relativistic Diverging Electron Beam

When modeling the propagation of charged particle beams at high currents and relativistic speeds, the space charge and beam current create significant electric and magnetic forces that tend to expand and focus the beam, respectively. The *Charged Particle Tracing* interface uses an iterative procedure, in this example, to efficiently compute the strongly coupled particle trajectories and ...

### Laminar Static Particle Mixer Designer

In static mixers, a fluid is pumped through a pipe containing stationary mixing blades. This mixing technique is well suited for laminar flow mixing, because it generates only small pressure losses in this flow regime. When a fluid is pumped through the channel, the alternating directions of the cross-sectional blades mix the fluid as it passes along the length of the channel. The static mixing ...

### Ideal Cloak

This model demonstrates the use of optical tracing for studying optically large gradient-index structures with anisotropic optical properties. Additionally, the model introduces a smoothing technique for handling discontinuities of refractive index on curved surfaces, which are typical in conventional optical devices such as lenses.

### Rotating Galaxy

This tutorial model shows how to add customized particle-particle interaction forces. In this example the gravitational force between 2500 stars in a galaxy is modeled. The galaxy initially rotates as a rigid body, then begins to change shape due to gravitational forces.

### Ion Funnel

An electrodynamic ion funnel provides an efficient means of transferring ions from regions of high pressure to high vacuum. The ion funnel can couple devices which generally operate at pressures of different orders of magnitude, such as ion mobility spectrometers and mass spectrometers, allowing mixtures of ionized gases to be separated and analyzed while minimizing losses. This model ...

### Charge Exchange Cell Simulator

A charge exchange cell consists of a region of gas at an elevated pressure within a vacuum chamber. When an ion beam interacts with the higher-density gas, the ions undergo charge exchange reactions with the gas, creating energetic neutral particles. It is likely that only a fraction of the beam ions will undergo charge exchange reactions. Therefore, in order to neutralize the beam, a pair of ...